uses the UART
(a.k.a. serial) communication protocol. This particular model used the RS-232
signal standard which means it can be directly connected to older DB9
ports, but would not work directly with TTL
The depicted USB-to-serial adapter is simply used to allow a modern computer (which do not include serial ports anymore) to communicate with the device. Any device capable of serial communication (at RS-232 voltage levels in this case) will be able to communicate with the camera.